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An auditor is a person or a firm appointed by a company to execute an audit. To act as an auditor, a person should be certified by the regulatory authority of accounting and auditing or possess certain specified qualifications. Generally, to act as an external auditor of the company, a person should have a certificate of practice from the regulatory authority. An auditor is an official whose job it is to carefully check the accuracy of business records. An auditor might be either an internal auditor, external auditor or independent auditor for accounting firms in the public or private sector. Auditors can also work for many different entities, such as the IRS or a state government. The auditor is an individual who is trained to review and verify that the accounting data provided by an audited company accurately corresponds to the activities that have been partaken by the company. The auditor's job is to write a report at the conclusion of the audit which determines the level of accuracy and clarity that the organization has accounted for. For instance, if all accounting moves made by the company are reflected in the books (such as the general ledger), and all data that appears in the records correspond to the course of business in the company, then the audit will have shown no misstatements.
Audit is an objective examination and evaluation of the financial statements of an organization to make sure that the records are a fair and accurate representation of the transactions they claim to represent. It can be done internally by employees of the organization, or externally by an outside firm. The IRS can perform audits to verify the accuracy of a taxpayerís returns or other transactions. When an audit is being preformed by the IRS, it usually carries a negative connotation and is seen as evidence of some type of wrongdoing by the taxpayer. Audits preformed by outside parties on private companies can be extremely helpful in removing any bias when it comes to the state of a company's financials. Audits look for what can be called a "material error" in statements on any specific object. They help provide stakeholders with a sense of accuracy when regarding the state of the subject being audited and can help enable them to make better, more informed decisions regarding the subject being audited. When audits are performed by third parties, the opinion on whatever is being audited (a businessí books, an organization as a whole or a system) can be candid and honest without it effecting daily work relationships. Most all companies receive an audit once a year, while even larger companies can receive audits monthly. For some companies, audits are a legal requirement due to the compelling incentives to intentionally misstate financial information in an attempt to commit fraud. For some publicly traded companies, auditors are used as a resource to evaluate the effectiveness of internal controls on financial reports.
Public auditors perform accounting, tax and consulting work for corporations, governments and individuals. These auditors work with tax forms and balance sheet statements that companies provide to potential investors. For example, some public accountants advise corporations on tax advantages of certain business decisions, or prepare individual income tax returns. Many public auditors are CPAs who work for public accounting firms or own their own businesses. Private auditors record and analyze financial information of the organization for which they work. Private auditors work on budgeting and performance evaluation, help plan the cost of doing business, and select financial investments for their companies. Government auditors maintain and examine records of government agencies and of private businesses or individuals performing activities subject to government regulations or taxation. Auditors employed through the government ensure revenues are received and spent according to laws and regulations. Government auditors detect embezzlement and fraud, analyze agency accounting controls, and evaluate risk management.
External auditor/ Statutory auditor is an independent firm engaged by the client subject to the audit, to express an opinion on whether the company's financial statements are free of material misstatements, whether due to fraud or error. For publicly traded companies, external auditors may also be required to express an opinion over the effectiveness of internal controls over financial reporting. External auditors may also be engaged to perform other agreed-upon procedures, related or unrelated to financial statements. Most importantly, external auditors, though engaged and paid by the company being audited, should be regarded as independent.
Internal Auditors are employed by the organizations they audit. They work for government agencies (federal, state and local); for publicly traded companies; and for non-profit companies across all industries. The internationally recognised standard setting body for the profession is the Institute of Internal Auditors - IIA (www.theiia.org). The IIA has defined internal auditing as follows: "Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organization's operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes".