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CCTV As the name implies, Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) is a system in which the circuit is closed and all the elements are directly connected. This is unlike broadcast television where any receiver that is correctly tuned can pick up the signal from the airwaves. Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point to point (P2P), point to multipoint (P2MP), or mesh wired or wireless links. Though almost all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most often applied to those used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as bars, banks, casinos, schools, hotels, airports, hospitals, restaurants, military installations, convenience stores and other areas where security is needed. Videotelephony is seldom called "CCTV" but the use of video in distance education, where it is an important tool, is often so called. Surveillance of the public using CCTV is common in many areas around the world. In recent years, the use of body worn video cameras has been introduced as a new form of surveillance. Video surveillance has generated significant debate about balancing its use with individuals' right to privacy even when in public. In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room, for example when the environment is not suitable for humans. CCTV systems may operate continuously or only as required to monitor a particular event. A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing digital video recorders (DVRs), provides recording for possibly many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features (such as motion detection and email alerts). More recently, decentralized IP cameras, some equipped with megapixel sensors, support recording directly to network-attached storage devices, or internal flash for completely stand-alone operation. In simple terms it is an electronic system for the capture of images, and their transmission to another location for viewing and/or recording. The most basic CCTV system will consist of cameras and a just a television monitor; but most nowadays will also include a recording device, most typically a digital recorder - these devices having largley replaced older, less flexible, video recorders.
The starting point for any CCTV system must be the camera. The camera creates the picture that will be transmitted to the control position. Apart from special designs CCTV cameras are not fitted with a lens. The lens must be provided separately and screwed onto the front of the camera. There is a standard screw thread for CCTV cameras, although there are different types of lens mounts. Not all lenses have focus and iris adjustment. Most have iris adjustment. Some very wide angle lenses do not have a focus ring. The 'BNC' plug is for connecting the coaxial video cable. Line powered cameras do not have the mains cable. Power is provided via the coaxial cable.
The picture created by the camera needs to be reproduced at the control position. A CCTV monitor is virtually the same as a television receiver except that it does not have the tuning circuits.
The simplest system is a camera connected directly to a monitor by a coaxial cable with the power for the camera being provided from the monitor. This is known as a line powered camera. Diagram 3 shows such a system. Probably the earliest well-known version of this was the Pye Observation System that popularised the concept of CCTV, mainly in retail establishments. It was an affordable, do-it-yourself, self-contained system. The next development was to incorporate the outputs from four cameras into the monitor. These could be set to sequence automatically through the cameras or any camera could be held selectively. Diagram 4 shows a typical arrangement of such a system. There was even a microphone built into the camera to carry sound and a speaker in the monitor. The speaker, of course, only put out the sound of the selected camera. There were however a few disadvantages with the system, although this is not to disparage it. The microphone, being in the camera, tended to pick up sound close to it and not at the area at which it was aimed. There was a noticeable, and sometimes annoying, pause between pictures when switching. This was because the camera was powered down when not selected and it took time for the tube to heat up again. The system was, though, cheap to buy and simple to install. It came complete in a box with camera, 16mm lens, bracket, switching monitor and 12 metres of coaxial cable with fitted plugs. An outlet socket for a video recorder was provided, although reviewing could be a little tedious when the cameras had been set to sequence. There are now many systems of line powered cameras on the market that are more sophisticated than this basic system. Most of the drawbacks mentioned have been overcome. Cameras had been around for a long time of course, before this development. The example is given to show the simplest, practical application. The use of some line powered cameras can impose limitations on system design. They do though, offer the advantage of ease of installation.
The basic CCTV installation is shown in diagram 5 where the camera is mains powered as is the monitor. A coaxial cable carries the video signal from the camera to the monitor. Although simple to install it should be born in mind that the installation must comply with the relevant regulations such as the Institute of Electrical Engineers latest edition. (Now incorporated into British Standard BS7671). Failure to do so could be dangerous and create problems with the validity of insurance. This arrangement allows for a great deal more flexibility in designing complex systems. When more than one camera is required, then a video switcher must be included as shown in diagram 6. Using this switcher any camera may be selected to be held on the screen or it can be set to sequence in turn through all the cameras. Usually the time that each camera is shown may be adjusted by a control knob or by a screwdriver.
Video Management Software (VMS) is software only that runs on your Windows computer and can be scaled to any size of IP camera system. Network Video Recorder (NVR) is a complete system that includes the computer and software. Cloud service provides remote recording (over the Internet) for IP cameras at many different locations. It doesn’t require any computer at your location, but supports very limited number of cameras. The IP recording and management system is a key part of your IP camera system. If you select the wrong system, you could find yourself without the key video evidence you need when an incident occurs, or worse still your security could be breached and safety threatened because of the wrong choice.
So far all the cameras shown have been fixed with fixed focal length lenses. In many applications the area to be covered would need many fixed cameras. The solution to this is to use cameras fixed to a movable platform. This platform can then be controlled from a remote location. The platform may simply rotate in a horizontal plane and is generally known as a scanner. Alternatively the platform may be controllable in both horizontal and vertical planes and is generally known as a pan, tilt unit. Cameras may be used indoors or outdoors. When used outdoors they will always require a protective housing. For indoor use the environment or aesthetic constraints will dictate whether a housing is needed. Systems may contain a combination of both fixed and movable cameras.