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The TCP/IP Model is a specification for computer network protocls. TCP/IP defines a set of rules to enable computers to communicate over a network. When you hook up a computer using an Ethernet cable you are connecting that computer on the Physical layer. The TCP/IP Model is a specification for computer network protocls. TCP/IP defines a set of rules to enable computers to communicate over a network. It specifies how data should be formatted, addressed, shipped, routed and delivered to the right destination. There are 5 layers in the TCP/IP Model. The first layer is called the Physical Layer. This layer is responsible for encoding and transmitting data over network communications media. It operates with data in the form of bits which are sent from the Physical layer of the sending source and received at the Physical layer of a destination source. When you hook up a computer using an Ethernet cable you are connecting that computer on the Physical layer. This Physical layer is the lowest level of the TCP/IP Model. The next layer is the Data link layer. This layer is used to move packets from the network layer on two different hosts. The process of transmitting packets on a link layer can be controlled in the software device driver for the network card and on firmware. Different protcols are used for different types of networks. Broadband Internet access uses PPPoE as the protocol. For a local wired network, Ethernet is used. For local wireless network, IEEE 802.11 is used. The next layer is the Network layer. This layers gets data from a source network to the destination network. This generally involves routing the packets across a network of networks (also known as internetwork). This is where IP(Internet Protocol) comes in. IP performs the basic task of getting packets of data from source to destination. The next layer is the Transport layer. The transport layer’s responsibility is end-to-end message transfer. There are 2 categories of end-to-end message transmission: connection-oriented (TCP) or connectionless (UDP). The transport layer provides this service of connecting applications together through the use of ports. This layer offers reliability and error control. The fifth and final layer is the Application layer. This layer refers to higher-level protocols used by most applications for network communication. An example of application layer protocol is FTP (File Transfer Protocol). Data coded according to application layer protocols are then encapsulated into one or more transport layer protocols which in turn use lower layer protocols to effect actual data transfer.
Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes. Nodes can include hosts such as personal computers, phones, servers as well as networking hardware. Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other. Computer networks differ in the transmission medium used to carry their signals, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network's size, topology and organizational intent. Computer networks support an enormous number of applications and services such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications as well as many others. In most cases, application-specific communications protocols are layered (i.e. carried as payload) over other more general communications protocols. A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub, officially MAC bridge) is a computer networking device that connects devices together on a computer network by using packet switching to receive, process, and forward data to the destination device. Unlike less advanced network hubs, a network switch forwards data only to one or multiple devices that need to receive it, rather than broadcasting the same data out of each of its ports. A network switch is a multiport network bridge that uses hardware addresses to process and forward data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Some switches can also process data at the network layer (layer 3) by additionally incorporating routing functionality that most commonly uses IP addresses to perform packet forwarding; such switches are commonly known as layer-3 switches or multilayer switches. Switches for Ethernet are the most common form and the first Ethernet switch was introduced by Kalpana in 1990. Switches also exist for other types of networks including Fibre Channel, Asynchronous Transfer Mode, and InfiniBand.