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An airline ticket is a document, issued by an airline or a travel agency, to confirm that an individual has purchased a seat on a flight on an aircraft. This document is then used to obtain a boarding pass, at the airport. Then with the boarding pass and the attached ticket, the passenger is allowed to board the aircraft. There are two sorts of airline tickets - the older style with coupons now referred to as a paper ticket, and the now more common electronic ticket usually referred to as an e-ticket. The passenger's name. The issuing airline. A ticket number, including the airline's 3 digit code at the start of the number. The cities the ticket is valid for travel between. Flight that the ticket is valid for. (Unless the ticket is "open") Baggage allowance. (Not always visible on a printout but recorded electronically for the airline) Fare. (Not always visible on a printout but recorded electronically for the airline) Taxes. (Not always visible on a printout but recorded electronically for the airline) The "Fare Basis", an alpha or alpha-numeric code that identifies the fare. Restrictions on changes and refunds. (Not always shown in detail, but referred to). Dates that the ticket is valid for. "Form of payment", i.e., details of how the ticket was paid for, which will in turn affect how it would be refunded. The Rate of Exchange used to calculate any international parts of the fare and tax. A "Fare Construction" or "Linear" showing the breakdown of the total fare.
A travel agency is a private retailer or public service that provides travel and tourism related services to the public on behalf of suppliers such as activities, airlines, car rentals, cruise lines, hotels, railways, travel insurance, and package tours. In addition to dealing with ordinary tourists most travel agencies have a separate department devoted to making travel arrangements for business travelers and some travel agencies specialize in commercial and business travel only. There are also travel agencies that serve as general sales agents for foreign travel companies, allowing them to have offices in countries other than where their headquarters are located.
A travel agency's main function is to act as an agent, selling travel products and services on behalf of a supplier. Consequently, unlike other retail businesses, they do not keep a stock in hand, unless they have pre-booked hotel rooms and/or cabins on a cruise ship for a group travel event such as a wedding, honeymoon, or a group event. A package holiday or a ticket is not purchased from a supplier unless a customer requests that purchase. The holiday or ticket is supplied to the agency at a discount. The profit is therefore the difference between the advertised price which the customer pays and the discounted price at which it is supplied to the agent. This is known as the commission. In many countries, all individuals or companies that sell tickets are required to be licensed as a travel agent. In some countries, airlines have stopped giving commissions to travel agencies. Therefore, travel agencies are now forced to charge a percentage premium or a standard flat fee, per sale. However, some companies pay travel agencies a set percentage for selling their product. Major tour companies can afford to do this, because if they were to sell a thousand trips at a cheaper rate, they would still come out better than if they sold a hundred trips at a higher rate. This process benefits both parties. It is also cheaper to offer commissions to travel agents rather than engage in advertising and distribution campaigns without using agents.
An airline consolidator is a wholesaler of airline tickets. Airlines use consolidators as a means to reach out to more niche target audiences, and by offering discounts and fare flexibility that is relevant to the target group. Consolidators work through contracts with major carriers to sell at reduced prices which are for niche ethnic markets, the main benefit being that fares through consolidators will be lower than published rates available from the airlines themselves. Airlines consolidators do not buy the seats in bulk for resale, they sell the available inventory at contracted rates. Airlines normally preset the selling rates for these fares for sale to sub-agents and to end customers, thereby ensuring that the fares are not undercut. Consolidators are most beneficial in international markets. For domestic U.S. markets, typically, they are only advantageous for business class and first class fares. Tickets purchased through consolidators may have very different fare rules than typical published fares, and sometimes frequent flyer credit may not be accrued. Even though many consolidators are online, most consolidators still work only through bona fide retail travel agents. Many consolidators also act as host agencies for local travel agencies. Today many of the online OTA use consolidators to increase margins on sales since airlines do not pay commissions.